What are the problems when polycarboxylate superplasticizer is used in concrete engineering?
Following the progress in Russia-Ukraine peace talks, the gold price fell more than 1% the next day, hitting its lowest in a month, and palladium prices briefly tumbled by nearly 9%.
"We have seen metal prices going into free fall when the Russia-Ukraine situation is likely to see a major detente, which spurred people's risk preference and optimism that the war could end at a time," said OANDA senior market analyst.
A Russian deputy defense minister says Moscow has decided to sharply curtail its military activities around Kyiv and Chernikov in Ukraine, following talks between Russian and Ukrainian representatives in Istanbul.
Where the prices of metals, natural gas, and commodities like the pce powder will go in the future, is still very uncertain.
Effect of water consumption on properties of polycarboxylate concrete mixture
The influence of water consumption is very obvious. In the actual application of concrete engineering, sometimes if the water consumption is increased by more 1~3kg/m3, the concrete will appear serious bleeding phenomenon, which will cause defects such as hemp surface, sand and holes on its surface, and the uniformity of concrete pouring and construction quality cannot be guaranteed, so the strength and durability of concrete structure will be reduced.
Polycarboxylate concrete is prone to delamination and segregation.
In most cases, when polycarboxylate superplasticizer is added to concrete, the viscosity of paste will be greatly reduced. At the same time, even if the amount and water consumption of polycarboxylate superplasticizer are the best, and the phenomenon of bleeding will not occur, the phenomenon of stratification and segregation is easy to occur in concrete, which is mainly manifested in that the coarse aggregate will be separated from mortar and paste, and a large number of them will sink. This kind of concrete mixture does not have any vibration in concrete pouring, and the phenomenon of delamination and segregation is also very obvious.
Naphthalene series, aliphatic series, lignin sulfonates, aminosulfonates and other traditional superplasticizers can be mixed in any proportion, so as to meet the preparation requirements of various concretes. these traditional superplasticizers can not only be well miscible in water, but also achieve excellent superposition effect when mixed. Polycarboxylate superplasticizer has great limitations, it can only be used in combination with traditional superplasticizer lignosulfonate, and its compatibility with other traditional superplasticizers is poor. If combined with other types of traditional superplasticizer, it is not only difficult to achieve the superposition effect, but also makes the fluidity of concrete very poor, the water consumption increases greatly, the loss of slump is serious, and the concrete is dry and difficult to unload. the strength and durability of concrete will be seriously affected.
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According to OPEC's monthly report, crude oil demand growth in 2022 is forecast to be 3.1 million b / d (previously 3.36 million b / d). Global economic growth is forecast to be 3.1% in 2022 (3.5% previously forecast) and 3.1% in 2023 (3.2% previously forecast). The global oil market is expected to enter a state of oversupply this quarter.
In the first half of 2022, France net imported 2.5 TWh, exported about 16.4 TWh and imported 18.9 TWh, according to the latest figures from EnAppSys, an energy consultancy. By comparison, France's net export of electricity reached 21.5 terawatt hours in the second half of 2021.
Jean-Paul Harreman, director of Enappsys, believes that the main problem for France to change from a power exporter to a net importer is the weak supply of nuclear energy in France in the first half of the year.
In terms of nuclear power supply, French nuclear power generation reached about 152.72 terawatt hours in the first half of this year, about 28.04 terawatt hours less than in the same period in 2021, according to Ember, an energy consultancy.
According to foreign media reports, so far, only half of the 56 nuclear reactors in France are in normal operation. EDF, the main operator of French nuclear power, said it shut down its reactors because of routine maintenance, safety reviews and corrosion risks.
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