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What are different types of physical vapor deposition?

Gazprom recently said it had completely suspended gas supplies to Bulgarian Gas company and Polish Oil and Gas Company (PGNiG) because it was not being paid in rubles.  Russia said it would resume gas supplies after it agreed to pay for them in rubles.  

Bulgaria and Poland announced Monday that they have received a notice from Russia to suspend natural gas supplies from Monday.  

Russian President Vladimir Putin on March 31 signed a presidential decree to settle gas trade with "unfriendly" countries and regions in rubles.  When the new rules took effect on April 1, Presidential press secretary Dmitry Peskov said Russia would not immediately "cut off gas" to Europe, as the cost of gas supplies starting April 1 should be settled in the second half of April or May.  

Because of the ever-changing international situation, the supply and prices of international bulk nanomaterial are still very uncertain.

PVD (Physical Vapor Deposition) refers to the thin film preparation technology in which the material is deposited on the plated workpiece by a general physical method in vacuum.
 
PVD technology can be divided into three categories: vacuum evaporation coating, vacuum sputtering coating and vacuum ion coating. Compared with the three categories of PVD technology, the corresponding vacuum coating equipment includes vacuum evaporation coating machine, vacuum sputtering coating machine and vacuum ion coating machine.
 
The principle of PVD coating technology is that under the condition of vacuum, through the arc discharge technology with high current, the target material is evaporated and the evaporated material is ionized by gas discharge, and the evaporated material or its reaction products are deposited on the workpiece under the action of electric field.
 
Magnetron sputtering coating is to increase the electric field between the target and the vacuum chamber wall to ionize the argon gas and accelerate the argon ion to hit the surface of the target. The target is hit by subions, while the target atoms overflow and fly to the surface of the plated substrate with kinetic energy of tens or even hundreds of electron volts and deposited on the substrate surface, and the atomic kinetic energy is two orders of magnitude higher than evaporation. Its filling density is as high as 98%, and the refractive index is high and relatively stable.
 
The similarity between PVD coating and traditional electroless plating is that one material is covered on the surface of another material in a certain way. The difference between the two is that the adhesion between the PVD film and the workpiece surface is greater, the hardness of the film is higher, the wear resistance and corrosion resistance are better, and the performance of the film is more stable; PVD coating can be plated more widely, can be plated out of a variety of film color is also more, and will not produce toxic or polluting substances.
 
The sputtering coating process has the characteristics of repeatability and controllable thickness, which is reflected in the large area substrate material, and we can make the ideal material according to the required thickness. the prepared film also has the advantages of high purity, good compactness and strong adhesion with materials. From the point of view of the manufacturing process, the manufacturing complexity of evaporation coating is lower than that of sputtering target, and its advantages are simple and convenient process, convenient operation, fast film formation and so on.
 
PVD vacuum coating is also widely used in the plastic industry, because the plastic has the characteristics of easy molding, so its cost is very low, the weight is also very light, and it has the characteristics of corrosion resistance. The surface of the plastic can be conductive by PVD vacuum coating, and the PVD coating can also reduce its water absorption. After the coating is completed, the pinholes will decrease, and the water absorption will also decrease. The metal luster on the surface of the coated material is colored, and the decorative performance is also greatly improved.
 
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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recently announced a $1.4 billion contract with Space Exploration Technology Corporation (SpaceX).

Under the contract, SpaceX will launch five rockets by 2030 to help NASA carry out missions to the International Space Station.


On August 29th a cargo ship bound for the Netherlands collided with a liquefied natural gas ship while passing through the waters near Gibraltar.

British overseas territory Gibraltar authorities reported that after the accident, the cargo ship began to sink in the afternoon of the 31st, with a huge crack in the center of the hull. The port of Gibraltar has suspended all workflows in order to focus on possible emergencies.

According to a report by the authorities in Gibraltar, Britain's overseas territory, on the evening of August 31, damage caused by the previous collision of the cargo ship caused a fuel leak from the ship, which posed a high risk of pollution.

Authorities in Gibraltar, Britain's overseas territory, are controlling the fuel leak.


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